Johnston County Ag Report

Johnston County Ag Report

July 2, 2014

 

The Johnston County Ag Report is edited weekly by Agricultural Extension Agents at the Johnston County Extension Center.  If you have any questions about the content, please call the Extension Center at 919-989-5380.

Contributors:

Tim Britton, Extension Agent – Field Crops

Dan Wells, Extension Agent – Livestock

Amie Newsome, Extension Agent – Horticulture

Shawn Banks, Extension Agent – Horticulture

Bryant Spivey, County Extension Director

2012 Census of Agriculture-County Highlights

Johnston County reported 1175 operation farms with over 50% reporting less than $10,000 in sales and approximately 20% reporting over $100,000 in sales. Johnston County was ranked 10th in the state in total agricultural products sold, reporting over $265 million in sales. Johnson County was ranked 1st in tobacco sales and 2nd in the tobacco acreage nationally. Johnston County ranked 2nd in the state in vegetable sales and acreage. We are also ranked 12th in swine sales, 13th in Grains and beans, fruits, nuts, and berries sales, and 14th in nursery, greenhouse, and sod sales and 18th in hay sales.

Of the 1175 farms, 548 farms were operated by full-time farmers and 627 were operated by part-time farmers. The average age of the farmer was 57.6.

Tobacco Update-Bryant Spivey

Regional Tobacco Scouting School

Friday, July 18, 2014 at 9 am – noon (lunch provided)

We will begin with a brief presentation followed by a field scouting activity. This is a rain or shine event! Please come prepared.

Sampson County Livestock Facility

1020 Taylors Bridge Hwy, Clinton NC 28328

Please RSVP by Friday, July 11, 2014 by calling 910-592-7161

Tobacco Budworms

Tobacco budworm levels have increased dramatically during the last week to 10 days in Johnston County.  Today I scouted a later planted field with most plants about 1 week away from the early button stage.  Approximately 50% of plants were infested with a live tobacco budworm.  Larvae ranged in size from newly hatched to 1 inch in length.  If you are not already spraying for worms, you definitely need to be checking your tobacco closely. The suggested threshold for budworm treatment is 10% of plants infested with a live budworm. Focus your attention on later planted fields first.  These fields are more susceptible to budworms while those that are at button stage or already topped are at little to no threat.

Target Spot

Recent rainfall has been very beneficial to the tobacco crop in general. However, these rains have provided enough moisture to allow target spot to begin developing in the lower canopy.  Quadris is an effective tool for the management of target spot, and it works best when used in a preventive manner. Considering the strong demand for flue-cured tobacco and the associated value of leaf, a preventive fungicide treatment is probably warranted.  Do not assume that hot dry days will eliminate this fungus.

Tobacco Tour

The North Carolina Tobacco Tour is the combined effort of the Departments of Plant Pathology (Dr. Mina Mila), Crop Science (Dr. Loren Fisher), Entomology (Dr. Hannah Burrack), and Biological & Agricultural Engineering (Dr. Grant Ellington). The tour provides an opportunity to observe some of the tobacco research conducted by the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service and the North Carolina Agricultural Research Service. It is also an excellent opportunity to interact with one another and to observe North Carolina’s agriculture.

Monday, July 14-3:00 PM
Late afternoon Farm Visit (Biological & Agricultural Engineering)
Randy Edwards farm (near Wendell) on July 14 at 3 pm.

Tuesday, July 15-8:00 AM
Upper Coastal Plain Research Station
2811 Nobles Mill Pond Rd, Rocky Mt, NC 27801

Please register at

http://plantpath.cals.ncsu.edu/nc-tobacco-tour/

Cotton Information

Growth Regulation
Some cotton will be blooming next week.  Remember the general rule of 21 days from square to bloom.  NCSU 2014 Cotton Information Suggestions for Growth Regulator Use Pages 50-56 is based on a desired plant height of 20-24 inches at early bloom.

For most growers, I suggest the Modified Early Bloom Strategy on Pages 55-56.  With this strategy, the 1st plant evaluation is made 10-14 days after 1st square.  Better growing cotton fields were at this point this week.  For this evaluation, plant height, height-to-node ratio, and internode length are items considered.

If you miss this evaluation and early bloom appears, use the Early Bloom – if Mepiquat has NOT been applied table on Page 56.  For this evaluation, plant height and internode length are items considered.

Table rates are for 0.35 lb/gal mepiquat chloride products.  Under each table, you will note do not apply if soil moisture is poor.  If cotton is wilted by 12:00 noon, soil moisture is poor.

Remember timely mepiquat applications (if needed) 10-14 days after 1st square and early bloom provide more bang for the buck than later catch-up applications.  Also remember mepiquat does not shrink BIG COTTON.

Nitrogen & Boron

Sidedress nitrogen should be applied approximately 14 days after 1st square.  This timing lessens the risk of early season leaching and ensures nitrogen is available for the high-demand bloom/boll development period.

For soils with moderate/high leaching potential, boron application is recommended near the early bloom growth stage.  This application promotes adequate boron during the critical bloom/boll development period.  1/2 pound/acre of actual boron should be applied.  This boron application can be made with the soil-applied sidedress nitrogen or as a foliar spray.

Plant Bugs

Early season (from squaring to 2nd week of bloom) plant bug scouting begins with plant square retention.  1/8 – 3-16 inch squares are monitored.  If square retention for the small square sites is 80% or more, plant bugs are not present at damaging levels.

If square retention is less than 80%, a sweep net should be used to confirm the presence/population of plant bugs.  For details, click here for the June 22 Scouting For Plant Bugs article by Dr. Dominic Reisig, NCSU Extension Entomology Specialist.

 Insecticides for Plant Bugs

With cotton squaring and flowering weeks away, it is a good idea to think about treatment options for plant bugs.  In fact, some growers have already confirmed square loss from plant bugs and densities of plant bugs above threshold in our state.  Some fields have already been sprayed, as a result, and it is a good idea to be prepared.  Although I think plant bugs are going to be an issue this year, I also think that we can easily manage them if we scout our fields correctly.  What I hope we can avoid is spraying when we don’t need to, which can lead to resistance or flare other pests later in the season.  For example, no insecticide will control adults that re-migrate into a field after a spray or stop squares that are being shed from droughty conditions with no plant bugs present.

Cumulative plant bugs per row foot 14 days after treatment.

Generally the neonicotinoid-class insecticides perform well early in the season before flowering and often at lower rates.  These include products such as Admire Pro, Belay, Centric, Intruder, Trimax Pro, etc.  The advantage to using these products is that they generally do not flare secondary pests, such as spider mites, and may preserve some, but not all, beneficial insects.  In general, a product that is killing a plant bug will likely kill related beneficial insects such as minute pirate bug and insidious flower bug, damsel bugs, assassin bugs, and big-eyed bugs.  However, these products are still much less harsh on the system than pyrethroid and organophosphate-class insecticides.

Later on in the season, neonicotinoid insecticides generally do not work as well.  However, Belay performed well in 2010 and 2013 trials that I had well into the growing season.  That being said, I am recommending that you do not spray a pure neonicotinoid product more than once a season (common examples of Admire Pro, Belay, Centric, Intruder, Trimax Pro are listed above) or a mixed product more than twice a season (common examples include Brigadier, Endigo, and Leverage 360).  Aphid resistance to neonicotinoids is on the rise and was confirmed in eastern NC in 2012.  All cotton seed treatments targeting thrips are neonicotinoids and pre-mixed product use in cotton is widespread.  Hence, the increase in neonicotinoids in cotton is increasing aphid resistance to these products.  Therefore, to counteract this resistance I am recommending that you rotate insecticides.

Also keep in mind that there are label restrictions to how much insecticide can be used throughout the season.  One example is thiamethoxam.  The maximum amount of this chemical that can be sprayed in the season is equal to a 5 oz rate of Centric (0.125 lb active ingredient per acre).  That total amount includes premixed products that contain thiamethoxam, such as Endigo.  Check the label before you spray to see what the active ingredients are and how much can be applied to the crop.

Here is an example of a spray plan.  For the first plant bug spray pre-bloom, at squaring or first flower, consider using a stand-alone neonicotinoid product (common examples include Admire Pro, Belay, Centric, Intruder, Trimax Pro).  If plant bugs are still a concern later on, or require a second spray, first check to see that aphids are not common in the field.  If they are, you should not use a neonicotinoid again.  Switch to a product like Carbine, Transform, or one of the more effective pyrethroids.  Remember that aphids first occur in field “hot-spots”.  So you might not see a population and resistance developing until it is full-blown.  Be sure to scout these fields intensively.  If aphids are not a concern, you should still not use a stand-alone neonicotinoid product for a second spray, but should switch to one of the pre-mixed products (like Endigo, Swagger, etc.) or an organophosphate/carbamate-only product (Bidrin, Orthene, Vydate, etc.).  Many of these products are also effective against stink bugs; eliminating stink bugs can be beneficial during the period of boll formation.  The downside to these products is that they kill beneficial insects and put you at risk for bollworm and spider mites.

Private Applicators Recertification/Safety Classes

The North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service is inviting all private applicators whose license expires in 2014 to attend the last Private Applicator Pesticide Recertification/Safety class for 2014. This last two-hour class will be held on the following dates:

Thursday, September 11, 2014, beginning at 6:30-8:30 PM

The class will be at the Johnston County Ag Center in Smithfield on NC 210 Hwy.   Applicators are reminded that licenses expire at the end of the year, but all recertification credits must be obtained before September 30th of the year the license expires. Applicators are asked to bring their Pesticide Credit Report Card with the bar code scan along with them to class.  Please call Tim Britton at 989-5380 to check credits.

Pesticide Exam Schedule-Johnston County

The North Carolina Pesticide exams will be offered on Wednesday, August 13th at 1:00 PM at the Johnston County Ag Center.  To take the exam, bring valid ID (Drivers License) and calculator.  Please arrive by 12:30PM.  For anyone wishing to take the private applicator exam, there will be a review at 10:00 AM.

 Early Season Weed Control for Bermudagrass Hayfields

Weed control early in the season can yield a cleaner first cutting of hay and allow for quicker drying time. Some options available for weed control:

2,4-D, various brands- (1-2 pts/acre) Effective control of dandelion and buttercup. Control of wild garlic, wild onion, chickweed or henbit may require multiple applications or applications in consecutive years. Due to sensitivity of tobacco and other crops to this chemical, use dedicated spray equipment, low volatile formulations and apply only in ideal weather conditions.

Weedmaster (dicamba + 2,4-D amine)­- (1-2 pts/acre) Effective control of dandelion, buttercup and curly dock. Control of chickweed or henbit may require multiple applications. Apply 1-2 pts/acre. For control of henbit in flower or buttercup in late bloom, 3 pts/acre may be needed. See label chart for specific recommendations for rate and timing. Use a non-ionic surfactant or liquid nitrogen carrier. Due to sensitivity of tobacco and other crops to this chemical, use dedicated spray equipment, low volatile formulations and apply only in ideal weather conditions.

Cimarron Plus (metsulfuron methyl + chlorsulfuron)- Excellent control of wild onion, henbit, chickweed, dandelion and other broadleaf weeds at 0.125 to 0.25 ounces/acre, depending on maturity of target weed. Control of cudweed may require multiple applications. For control of Pensacola bahiagrass, apply 0.375 ounces/acre after spring greenup but before formation of first seedheads. Use non-ionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v unless applied in liquid nitrogen carrier. If applying Cimarron Plus to tall fescue, do not exceed 0.5 ounce/acre to avoid injury. Do not apply to fescue less than two years old. No grazing or hay harvest restrictions.

Pastora (metsulfuron + nicosulfuron)- Excellent control of many of the same species as Cimarron Plus, and with added activity against annual ryegrass and crabgrass or sandbur less than 4” tall. Also offers effective control of bahiagrass if applied after greenup but before formation of first seedheads. Temporary crop injury can occur if applied to new growth more than two inches tall or more than 7 days after harvest. Apply 1 to 1.5 ounces/acre. Do not exceed 2.5 ounces/acre/year. Use .25% v/v of non-ionic surfactant or liquid nitrogen carrier. Pastora is not labeled for use on tall fescue. No grazing or hay harvest restrictions.

Do not apply glyphosate or paraquat to bermudagrass that is emerging or has emerged from dormancy. Do not use imazapic (Panoramic, Impose, other trade names) during the spring transition period, within 30 days after aeration, or to drought-stressed bermudagrass.

 Wheat Update

At the ripening stage, the kernel moisture content is still high, usually ranging from 25 to 35 percent, when wheat begins to ripen but decreases rapidly with good weather. The plant turns to a straw color and the kernel becomes very hard. The kernel becomes difficult to divide with a thumbnail, cannot be crushed between fingernails, and can no longer be dented by a thumbnail. Harvest can begin when the grain has reached a suitable moisture level (usually less than 20%). It is important for grain quality that the harvest begins as soon as possible. Test weight (and hence grain yield) may be reduced during the ripening process. Decreased test weight results from the alternate wetting (rains or heavy dews) and drying of the grain after the wheat has physiologically matured.

A timely wheat harvest provides the best test weight, minimizes gathering loss and simplifies combine operation. Conflicts with other crop operations that delay wheat harvest may significantly reduce per acre income. When wheat dries below 15 percent, weather may cause field losses. Harvest delays are more costly than most anticipate!

During days of low humidity, wheat moisture content falls rapidly. Wheat may dry 2 to 3 percentage points during a hot, dry day or rewet, depending on the weather and soil moisture content. Waiting for all immature green heads to ripen is impractical because field shatter may cause significant loss. Wheat moisture content should be monitored daily once it drops to 20 percent. Consider beginning harvest between 15 and 16 percent moisture and realize that % moisture can change 2-3 percentage points from 10:00-2:00 o’clock. Those who need additional time to complete the harvest, including rain delays, should consider starting harvest between 17 and 18 percent moisture.

The initial reaction to high-moisture discounts should be tempered with the cost of moisture loss in the delivered grain, deteriorating test weights and the potential for good harvesting weather. Drying some of the first wheat that is harvested can be a profitable opportunity.

Timely wheat harvest adds greatly to the yield potential of the succeeding crop in a double-crop field.

Head Scab

The primary symptom of scab is premature bleaching of heads. Part or all of the head may die prematurely. Once the wheat has turned, scab-infected heads may develop a pink or orange fungal growth at the base of, or on the dead glumes. Infected plants may be in patches or scattered throughout a field.

Premature death of wheat plants can result from other problems, such as root rot; so do not assume that it is always scab. If heads die early, but the leaves and roots still appear healthy, this is a good indication that scab is the culprit. Heads with scab will have no grain or very shriveled grain that takes on a chalky-white appearance. A darkening of the head often follows pre-mature ripening, as secondary fungi, such as Alternaria and Cladosporium, colonize the dead tissue. This condition often is often referred to as black or sooty head mold and is a sign that heads died prematurely but does not indicate the original cause. Black head mold is not harmful in itself.

The scab fungus survives in crop residue and windborne or splashed spores infect the heads during flowering. Moist weather and moderate temperatures are conducive to infection. Scab can devastate yields if a large proportion of plants are infected. Some fields may not be salvageable. F. graminearum also can produce harmful mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). If a badly affected field is harvested and much of the grain looks shriveled, it can be cleaned and most of the shriveled seed will be removed. This will significantly reduce the risk of mycotoxins. One can also combat this contaminated grain by raising the airflow setting on the combine so that much of the infected, shriveled grain is blown away with the chaff. Scabby grain is a poor candidate for storage.

Scab is difficult to control when weather is favorable for the disease. Fungicidal control has not been effective. The fungus infects wheat and corn, so these crops should be rotated with a legume crop. Tillage will help reduce the survival of the fungus. Some wheat varieties are less susceptible, but none are highly resistant, and information is vague. Scab infected seed should not be planted because emergence is poor. Seed treatments can improve emergence of scabby seed, but they do not prevent infection of the plants later in the season.

Grain Sorghum

 Planting Dates

High yields can be obtained from May 1 – July 1 planting dates.  Soils should be 60-65 degrees F at 10:00 am at a 2-inch depth 3 consecutive days for plantings.  Warm soils promote rapid germination, emergence, and seedling growth.

Varieties

Please see the 2013 official variety testing guide.

Row Spacings/Plant Populations
NCSU Sorghum 2012 Test Report & Recommendations (pages 7-9) reveals narrow rows (7.5-inches) had the highest yields at 120,000 plants/acre, 160,000 plants/acre, and 300,000 plants/acre.  Yield did not differ significantly at these 3 plant populations.  Please remember the following:  1) the 3 test sites soil types were loams (not sands) & 2) adequate soil water was available during the head/pollination/grain fill period.  For both 15-inch and 30-inch row spacings, 80,000 plants/acre produced optimal yields.  Remember “wide rows” offer layby nitrogen and layby herbicide opportunities.

Assuming 30-inch rows 80% emergence, 100,000 seeds/acre (5.7 seeds/row foot) would result in 80,000 plants/acre.  Assuming 38-inch rows 80% emergence, 100,000 seeds/acre (7.3 seeds/row foot) would result in 80,000 plants/acre.

Seed Depth

Seeds should be planted 1-2 inches deep, depending on soil moisture and surface residue.  Do not plant seeds deeper than 2 inches.

Fertilization

NCDA&CS grain sorghum (milo) target pH, P2O5, and K2O recommendations are the same as corn (grain), wheat, and soybeans.  Utilize your soil test report for sorghum nutrient recommendations.  In the absence of a soil test, apply 20-30 lbs/acre of P2O5 and 50-70 lbs/acre of K2O.  20 lbs/acre of sulfur are recommended for sandy soil plantings.

1 1/2 pounds of nitrogen per expected bushel of sorghum is recommended.  60-80 bushels/acre of sorghum have been common on Duplin County marginal, sandy soils.  Apply 25% of the nitrogen at planting and the remainder at layby.  Layby nitrogen should be applied when plants are 10-12 inches tall.

Weed Management
NCSU Sorghum 2012 Test Report & Recommendations Tables 3 & 4 (pages 12-14) note preplant, preemergence, postemergence, postemergence-directed, and postemergence-hooded herbicide options.  Start clean!  A common herbicide program has consisted of a preemergence herbicide such as Bicep II Magnum (Dual + atrazine) or Lariat (alachlor + atrazine).  When sorghum is 6-8 inches tall, atrazine + 2,4-D amine are sprayed postemergence-overtop.  Do not exceed 2.5 lbs active ingredient of atrazine per acre per season.  When sorghum is at least 15 inches tall (2-4 inch weeds/grasses), Linex can be sprayed postemergence-directed (no higher than the lower 3 inches of the stalk).  When sorghum is at least 15 inches tall (4+ inch weeds/grasses), Linex + Gramoxone can be sprayed postemergence-hooded.

Remember there are other herbicide options.  Consider weeds/grasses present, herbicide costs, and herbicide rotation restrictions.

Troubleshooting Corn

 Corn is highly responsive to chemicals, fertilizers, and environmental conditions.  It grows rapidly, and the duration of reproductive growth is brief.  It follows that problems limiting the productivity of cornfields often arise suddenly and must be corrected quickly in time to preserve full yield potential.  It may not be possible to correct some problems during the crop year in which they are discovered.  It is imperative that such problems be accurately diagnosed in order to maintain the profitability of fields in subsequent years.

Poor corn growth is usually caused by environmental conditions or inadequate fertility programs.  Most situations must be remedied before the crop is 18 inches high. Anything that appears abnormal in a field should be quickly investigated and systematically diagnosed.  Diagnosing problems in cornfields is frequently a difficult task requiring objective thinking, considerable knowledge, and some experience.  However, a careful, logical approach to each situation coupled with soil, tissue, and nematode analyses will usually yield the reason for poor corn performance.

 High pH and Corn

Damage caused by manganese deficiency is rare in corn but does occur in North Carolina on soils extremely low in manganese. Damage is most often found where soil pH is excessively high as a result of improper liming or use of effluent as and irrigation source.  Symptoms appear first on the youngest leaves. The leaves become pale with interveinal chlorosis.  Stalks appear stunted as a result of shortened internodes. Preventive treatment should include placing 3 to 5 pounds of actual manganese per acre with an acid-forming fertilizer in a band near the corn row.  Preplant broadcast applications should range from 10 pounds of actual manganese per acre on mineral soils to 20 pounds per acre on organic soils.  Corrective action after emergence-generally the application of I to 2 pounds per acre of manganese sulfate-may also be necessary.

Some corn fields are showing Nitrogen (N), potassium (K), sulfur (S), and, magnesium (Mg) deficiency symptoms, even when growth stages range from V3 to V8. The symptoms of K are yellowing of the leaf margins of the older leaves that usually begins at the leaf tip and extends down the margins toward the leaf base. With severe deficiency the leaf edges may become brown and necrotic, although the newest leaves usually have normal coloration. Sulfur deficiency in corn can result in a general yellowing of the plant, similar to nitrogen deficiency; or as interveinal chlorosis, similar to magnesium or zinc deficiency. Sulfur is not easily translocated in plants, so symptoms will appear first and be most pronounced on the younger, upper leaves. Deficiencies of mobile nutrients, such as nitrogen, will appear first on the lower leaves as nutrients are remobilized to growing plant tissues. Magnesium deficiency causes whitish strips along the veins and often a purplish color on the underside of the lower leaves.

Corn Deficiencies

In several fields the soil-test took during the winter indicated that K, S, and Mg levels and pre-plant fertilization were adequate. However, the deficiency is most likely is caused by heavy rainfall leaching elements out of the root zone and compaction and crusting of soils in bottom areas where soil got really wet and hard after heavy rainfall. Any soil factor that limits root growth and water uptake can limit K, S, and Mg uptake and induce a deficiency. Corn can be helped by adding enough of these nutrients in the root zone. K-Mag would be the fertilizer of choice, but it is in short supply, leaving AMS and 0-0-60. There is no good source of Mg other than K-Mag and dolomitic lime that can be spread. 200lbs of AMS and 50-100lbs of 0-0-60 would give corn a boost.

Corn Nitrogen Needs for Coastal Plain

 A typical nitrogen uptake curve shows that corn takes up about 15 lbs/acre of nitrogen by the time corn is about 15 inches tall. It starts a rapid uptake period at this time and will grow about 3 feet the next two weeks with good moisture and take up about 80 lbs/acre of nitrogen during those two weeks, followed by another 50 lbs/acre of uptake in the next two weeks prior to tassel emergence. Therefore, at least 130 lbs/acre of nitrogen will need to be available in the four weeks after corn reaches the 15-inch height range. Over the next 6 weeks of ear formation, corn will take up another 100–150 lbs/acre of nitrogen. However, if nitrogen is adequate until tassel emergence, no yield increase would be expected from additional nitrogen application after tassel emergence. Only grain N content is increased with N applied after tassel emergence.

Soybean Planting and Variety selection

 As Johnston County farmers begin to plant soybeans this year, we know that we will have a lot of double crop acreage.  Keep in mind that if you had some micronutrient deficiencies in your wheat, you may also have similar problems in soybeans as similar soil pH’s are required for both crops.

 Manganese deficiencies can occur in fields with a pH higher than 6.2.  Manganese can be applied to the soil to prevent this deficiency in soybeans.  The recommended rates are 10 to 15 lbs/A or 4lbs/A within a band.  A foliar application of manganese (manganese sulfate) can be applied as a rescue treatment at a rate of 0.4-0.8lbs/A if needed later in the growing season.  High solubility manganese sources are more effective fertilizers.  Manganese Sulfate is approximately 20-27% active manganese/lb.  It is a highly soluble source of manganese.  It can be applied as a solid or in a liquid form.

 Nematode issues in certain fields will also require nematode resistant varieties.  If there is a concern about nematodes, a soil sample should be taken and sent the Nematode assay lab.  There are many group IV and V varieties to chose from if you are not double cropping and just as many group VI, VII, and VIII varieties for double cropped beans.

 North Carolina State University Official Variety Test books are available from the Extension Office and local seed dealers to assist growers in making variety selection decisions. Come by or call the Cooperative Extension Service at 989-5380 to obtain a copy of the “Cotton and Soybean Green Book”.

 Herbicide Resistance

As the 2014 growing season quickly progresses, the major concern again this year will be resistant weeds.  It is not to early to start planning your herbicide program.  Round-up Ready and more Liberty Link varieties are available this year.

 Choosing herbicides with different modes of action is extremely important.  This is not something new and has been stressed in production meetings since resistance was found in North Carolina.  Always use full-labeled rates of herbicides.  No cutting back to save money.  Where applicable use a pre-emergence with a contact, following all planting guidelines.  Try tank mixes with different MOA’s, use proper surfactants at labeled rates, and always read label for compatibility of different herbicides.  Make sure the spray volumes used will provide adequate coverage.

 Spring is a busy time and scouting is sometimes impossible to do.  However, most herbicides only work on weeds that are at or below a certain height.  In some cases, these weeds are shorter than the row crops they are growing in so a spray schedule may work better.  Remember, dry conditions may inhibit herbicide activity.  Surfactants and application timing can help increase that activity during dry weather.

 Good field history records can be a big help to growers, extension agents and extension specialist when planning or assisting with a resistance strategy. Glyphosate resistant Horseweed, Common ragweed, and Palmer Amaranth are becoming more prevalent in fields across Johnston County.  Remember, the best way to control resistant weeds is to keep them form coming up.

 Pesticide Container Rinse and Recycle Program

 The pesticide container rinse and recycle program has expanded to two new locations, giving Johnston County more room to properly dispose of pesticide containers.

 These sites are located at 820 Stewart Road in Four Oaks, 1096 Scout Road in the Bentonville area, 9349 NC Hwy 96 S in the Meadow area, 5677 US Hwy 301 in Kenly, 15031 Buffalo Road in Clayton, and at the Johnston County Landfill site on County Home Road in Smithfield.

Properly rinsed containers can be taken to these sites during normal operating hours.  You do not need a county solid waste sticker to dispose of containers.  Remember, to remove the label and lid, on buckets, remove the label and large lid, and on 35 and 55 gallon drums, drill holes in bottom and do not crush.

Beaver Management Assistance Program

 Johnston County participates in the beaver management and assistance program conducted by the USDA.  County, state, and federal monies provide the program designed to give individual technical assistance and advice to landowners with beaver problems.  Property inspection and consultation is free.  Consultation may include showing the landowner how to trap beavers and destroy dams.

For work that the USDA actually conducts, landowners will be charged a fee for each visit to the site and a set amount for each dam destroyed.  USDA will do all or part of the work.

Interested landowners should call or contact Tim Britton with the Johnston County Cooperative extension service at (919) 989-5380 or by email at Tim_Britton@ncsu.edu.

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